Until his retirement earlier this year, Dr. Bourianoff was a Senior Principle Engineer in the Components Research Group of Intel. His primary responsibility was to interface with universities and other research organizations around the world to identify and support promising new technologies in the search for alternatives to CMOS that could extend the exponential growth of computing technologies beyond the end of classical Dennard scaling. He has been a familiar presence on university campuses and was a frequent lecturer and author on "Beyond CMOS" technology. He was coeditor and cofounder of the Emerging Device Group of the ITRS and played a formative role in both the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative and Semiconductor Technology Advanced Research Network. His current research interests are cognitive processing with nano-oscillator arrays and spin logic devices.
Dr. Bourianoff joined Intel in 1994 from the Super Conducting Super-collider Laboratory where he was responsible for accelerator control system modeling. His group was for modeling the accelerator control system consisting of 500,000 control points distributed on 72 miles of beam line in the 5 accelerator complex. Prior to that Dr. Bourianoff was a Senior Scientist at SAIC where he worked on controlled thermonuclear fusion and relativistic electron bean propagation.
Dr. Bourianoff has 46 publications and 12 patents in advanced nanoelectronic technologies. He has a BS, MS and PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.
The next few years will see extremely rapid evolutionary change of the computing industry driven primarily by the voracious computation requirements and low power needs of the IoT. That will require new information processing functionalities enabled by new architectures, devices, device fabrics and material systems. Cognitive processing will play a significant role in the evolution of that ecosystem.
Despite an intensive worldwide search for the "Next Switch" beyond CMOS, no clear winner has yet emerged. However, many of the building blocks that will define the future information processing ecosystem have emerged and are visible today. There are new classes of devices designed to utilize computational state vectors other than electronic charge as information tokensi. There are many new material systems to consider, such as Perovskites, Van der Wall materials, oxides, layered manganites and carbon based materials such as graphene and graphene bilayers. These new material systems can support new ordered states such as 2DEGs, topological Insulators, Bose Einstein condensates, mutiferroic ordering, magnetoelectric ordering typical of strongly correlated electrons. In addition, strongly correlated electron states can exist solely at the interfaces between oxides independent of the bulk adding a whole new dimension to the material system functionality. Novel devices and novel device fabrics designed to utilize these new functionalities are also coming into view.
Simultaneously with maturation of CMOS and development of new building blocks, the IoT is experiencing morphological change at an exponential rate. The first stage of the IoT evolution involved setting up the basic infrastructure and devices; namely the assortment of mobile devices, networks and servers. The second stage of the IoT involves fluid operating systems that enable the mobile devices to run on whatever computing resources are available. The race to develop those operating systems involves huge issues in interoperability and security and is currently under way but is a long way from maturity. The last evolutionary stage of the IoT is just beginning. It will involve developing and deploying services which enable semantic understanding, cognitive learning and self-management.
As the IoT evolves from stage 2 to stage 3, computers and computing will have to evolve away from discrete, binary Boolean logic structures towards collective, biologically inspired systems doing cognitive information processing. At the same time, an explosion of sensor generated data streams is creating a demand for intelligent, adaptive cognitive processing to interpret the data streams and extract information. In order to be economically feasible, these systems must be based on existing CMOS technology and infrastructure. In other words, the new structures will have to be supported by and surrounded on all sides by state of the art Boolean logic processors built on both highly scaled CMOS devicesii and novel nanodevicesiii, iv, currently in the research pipeline.
Today there are currently estimated to be 15 billion devices connected to the internet and that number is expected to be 31 billion by 2020 devices. The IOT must support a huge diversity of different computing devices from the traditional PCs, laptops, and cellphones to sensors, appliances, smart TVs. Handhelds, security systems, which must be interconnected to function seamlessly. In between the devices and the servers are all manner of intermediate systems including controllers, network servers, communication concentrators, and many others. Currently, huge amounts of data are being poured into IoT by autonomous sensor networks monitoring everything from smart cities to factories to network traffic. Emerging applications such as automotive control and collision avoidance, personal health monitoring and agricultural production will require huge additional amounts of bandwidth and processing power. The common thread running through all the emerging elements of the IoT is the need to process the flood of data into a form that humans can understand and interact with. To do that, these new systems must be cognitive. In fact, Gartner estimates that by 2017, 10% of computers will be devoted to learning rather than information processing directly.
This presentation will focus on progress being made to develop new devices based on new material families and capable of novel functionalities. These new functions go beyond the well-known Boolean logic functions and include cognition related functions such as feature extraction, recognition, association and optimization. This presentation will also briefly outline the architectural and network structures that are necessary to support these diverse applications and include recursive networks, cellular neural networks and other network topologies. It will conclude with a vision of how fabrics of autonomous nanodevices might be able to address the issues of emergent computing at the hardware level. In other words, hardware systems capable of simulating complex behavior observed in many biological systems such as swarming that emerges in a non-linear manner from large numbers of low-level component interactions.
i GI Bourianoff, et.al, "Nanoelectronics Research for Beyond CMOS Information Processing", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 12, December 2010
ii K.J Kuhn et.al, "The ultimate CMOS device and beyond", Proceedings of the IEDM, December, 2012
iii DE Nikonov and IA Young, "Overview of Beyond-CMOS Devices and a Uniform Methodology for Their Benchmarking", Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume:101 Issue:12, December 2012
iv Chen et. al. "Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices", Wiley and Sons, 2015
Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne Michael Grätzel directs there the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces. He pioneered studies of energy and electron transfer reactions in mesoscopic materials and their use in energy conversion systems, in particular the solar generation of electricity and chemical fuels as well as lithium ions batteries. He discovered a new photovoltaic based on sensitized mesoporous oxide films. His most recent awards include the Leigh-Ann Conn Prize, the Leonardo Da Vinci Medal, the Marcel Benoist Prize, the Albert Einstein World Award of Science, the Paul Karrer Gold Medal, the Balzan Prize and the 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize. He received a Ph.D from the Technical University Berlin and honorary doctor’s degrees from 10 European and Asian Universities. He is a member of the Swiss Chemical Society, the German National Academy of Science and a Fellow of the European Academy of Science the Max Planck Society the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK), the Bulgarian Academy of Science and the Société Vaudoise de Sciences Naturelles. Author of over 1300 publications and inventor of over 60 patents he is with some 140’000 citations and an h–index of 173 one of the most highly cited scientists in the world.
Mesoscopic photovoltaics have emerged as credible contenders to conventional p-n junction photovoltaics [1,2]. Separating light absorption from charge carrier transport, dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were the first to use three-dimensional nanocrystalline junctions for solar electricity production, reaching currently a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13% in standard air mass 1.5 sunlight. Large-scale production and commercial sales have meanwhile been launched on the multi-megawatt scale. Dye sensitized solar cells have engendered a new generation of photovoltaics based on ABX3 perovskites as powerful light harvesters [3,4] where A stands for methylammonium or formamidinium cations, B for Pb(II) or Sn(II) and X for iodide or bromide. The meteoric rise of the conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells from merely 3 to over 20% within only a few years has stunned the photovoltaic community. CH3NH3PbI3 and related lead pigments employing mixed formamidinium/methylammonium A-cations and mixed iodide bromide anions have emerged as powerful light harvesters. Carrier diffusion lengths in the 100 nm to micron range have been measured for solution-processed perovskites , which now attain a PCE of 20.8%. Perovskite-based mesoscopic photosystem that mimic natural photosynthesis in generating fuels from sunlight  will also be presented.
M. Grätzel, Nature 414, 338 (2001)
A.Yella, H.-W. Lee, H. N. Tsao, C. Yi, A.Kumar Chandiran, Md.K. Nazeeruddin, EW-G. Diau,,C.-Y Yeh, S. M. Zakeeruddin and M. Grätzel Science 629, 334 (2011)
M. Grätzel, Nature Materials
J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R.Humphry-Baker, P. Gao1, M K. Nazeeruddin and M. Grätzel, Nature 499, 316-319 (2013)
G.C Xing, N.,Mathews, S.Y. Sun, S.S. Lim, Y.M., Lam, M Grätzel, N., S. Mhaisalkar a T.C. Sun, Science 342, 344_347 (2013)
J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M.T. Mayer, M. Schreier, Md.K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S.D.Tilley, H.J. Fan, M. Grätzel, Science, 345, 1593-1596 (2014)
Roberto Cingolani is the Scientific Director of the Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa, since 2055. Born in Milan in 1961, he graduated in Physics at the University of Bari in 1985 and he later obtained his PhD in Physics at the same University. In 1989 he got the "Diploma di Perfezionamento" (PhD) in Physics at Scuola Normale in Pisa. During the period from 1989 to 1991 he was staff member at the Max Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung in Stuttgart (Germany). In 1992 he became associated Professor of Physics at the University of Salento, where in 2000 he was nominated Professor of General Physics at the Engineering Faculty.
During 1997 he was Visiting Professor at the Institute of Industrial Sciences at Tokyo University (Japan) and the year after at Virginia Commonweakth University (USA). In 2001 he was the Founder and Director of the National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) of INFM at University of Salento.
Author and co-author of about 750 publications, considering papers on International journals and participations at conferences, he holds 46 patent. During the years he has been in charge of various institutional roles at national and international levels. Among prof. Cingolani’s awards and honours are: two Prizes of the Italian Physical Society for young researchers, the INFM Prize "Ugo Campisano" for researchers in the field of Semiconductor Physics, the "ST-Microelectronics" Prize by the Italian Physical Society, the "Premio Grande Ippocrate" award for science dissemination by Unamsi and Novartis, the "Guido Dorso" Award by the Italian Republic Senate for his Research Activity. The title of "Alfiere del Lavoro" and the title of "Commendatore della Repubblica" by the President of the Italian Republic.
Humans cannot be imitated by simply combining artificial intelligence and robotic bodyware. The unique nexus between body and mind of humans requires a combination of neuromorphic sensing systems, compliant actuation, soft responsive materials, conformable power sources, and computation capability at the edge of present technologies. In this talk we will discuss the integration of material science, nanotechnology, actuation and computation in the humanoid ICub, the most diffused humanoid platform in the world fabricated by the Italian Institute of Technology. A few key applications of such humanoid technologies to humans, such as advanced prosthetic systems (hands, legs, eyes), will also be presented.
Rodney S. Ruoff, Distinguished Professor, UNIST Department of Chemistry and the School of Materials Science and Engineering, is director of the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), an IBS Center located at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) campus. Prior to joining UNIST he was the Cockrell Family Regents Endowed Chair Professor at the University of Texas at Austin from September, 2007. He earned his Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from the University of Illinois-Urbana in 1988, and he was a Fulbright Fellow in 1988-89 at the Max Planck Institute für Strömungsforschung in Göttingen, Germany. He was at Northwestern University from January 2000 to August 2007, where he was the John Evans Professor of Nanoengineering and director of NU's Biologically Inspired Materials Institute. He has co-authored over 385 peer-reviewed publications related to chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics, and biomedical science, and is a Fellow of the Materials Research Society, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has been awarded the 2014 MRS Turnbull Lectureship.
I appreciate the opportunity to briefly introduce the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), an Institute of Basic Science Center at UNIST. Then, a very brief history of graphene (see, e.g., ref 1) will be given, after which I will discuss some of the contributions that I and my collaborators have made to graphene science (from 1999 [2,3] until now). Time permitting, I’ll then give a brief perspective of some new carbon and related materials that might be made in the future.
Ruoff, Rodney S. Personal perspectives on graphene: New graphene-related materials on the horizon. MRS Bulletin, 37, 1314-1318 (2012).
Of possible interest:
Zhu, Yanwu; Murali, Shanthi; Stoller, Meryl D.; Ganesh, K. J.; Cai, Weiwei; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Pirkle, Adam; Wallace, Robert M.; Cychosz, Katie A.; Thommes, Matthias; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.; Ruoff, Rodney S. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene. Science 332, 1537-1541 (2011).
Takao Someya received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1997. Since 2009, he has been a professor of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Tokyo. From 2001 to 2003, he worked at the Nanocenter (NSEC) of Columbia University and Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, as a Visiting Scholar. His current research interests include organic transistors, flexible electronics, plastic integrated circuits, large-area sensors, and plastic actuators. Prof. Someya has received a number of awards including a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Prize in 2009 and 2009 IEEE Paul Rappaport Award. He is a global scholar of Princeton University, a member of the board of directors of the U.S. Materials Research Society from 2009 to 2011, and an IEEE/EDS Distinguished Lecturer since 2005. Prof. Someya’s "large-area sensor array" electronic thin film was featured in Time Magazine as one of its "Best Inventions of 2005" in its November 21st, 2005 issue.
We report recent progress of ultraflexible organic thin-film devices such as organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) that are manufactured on ultrathin plastic film with the thickness of 1 μm [1-6]. Ultraflexible organic transistor integrated circuits (ICs) exhibit extraordinary robustness in spite of being superthin. The electrical properties and mechanical performance of the transistor ICs were practically unchanged even when squeezed to a bending radius of 5 μm, dipped in physiological saline, or stretched to up to double their original size. These organic transistor ICs have been utilized to develop a flexible touch sensor system. Then, we have demonstrated OPV and OLED on 1 μm thick PEN. Moreover, the issues and the future prospect of flexible organic devices will be addressed. We will also describe emerging applications using ultraflexible and stretchable electronic systems in the fields of wearable and biomedical electronics.
Theresa S. Mayer is a Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and the Associate Dean for Research and Innovation in the College of Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. She is a Site Director of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which enables nanotechnology research and technology transition for diverse science and engineering communities from academia to industry. Prior to her current positions, Dr. Mayer served as an Associate Director of the Penn State Materials Research Institute, where she was the Director of the Nanofabrication Laboratory and on the leadership team of the Center for Nanoscale Science. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Purdue University in 1989 and 1993, respectively.
Dr. Mayer is widely recognized for her research in hierarchical nanomanufacturing and its applications in electronic and photonic microsystems with new functionalities. Her work in directed assembly of nanoparticles is being used to address a variety of device and manufacturing challenges, ranging from low-power integrated nanosensor circuits to nontraditional patterning processes. Dr. Mayer has more than 350 technical publications, invited tutorials and presentations, and holds eight patents. Two companies have licensed the technologies for commercialization. She has won numerous awards in both research and education, and she served as the General Chair of the IEEE Device Research Conference and the Gordon Research Conference on Nanostructure Fabrication. Over her career, she has been active in engaging women and minorities in science and technology disciplines.
With CMOS nearing the physical limits of scaling, the future of the semiconductor industry is at a critical point. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) identifies the growing need to interface new nanoscale materials and devices with Si CMOS architectures to sustain nanoelectronic circuit scaling (more-of-Moore) and to discover entirely new electronic systems (more-than-Moore). The use of a heterogeneous, system-level integration strategy that seamlessly merges one technology with another holds great promise of enabling transformational shifts in electronics, in computing, and in chemical and biological research paradigms. This talk will describe a new nanomanufacturing process to position large, diverse, and interchangeable arrays of nanowire sensors or sheets of alternative electronic materials onto fully-processed Si CMOS circuits via directed self-assembly. The wires and tiles are fabricated off-chip from many different materials tailored for a specific function. Electric-field forces are then used direct different populations of these materials to specific regions of the chip, while also providing accurate registry between each individual wire or tile and a predefined feature on the chip. Following assembly, conventional lithographic processes are then be used to define the nanodevices and connect them to the Si circuit. This assembly strategy eliminates constraints due to thermal budget, chemical incompatibility, lattice mismatch, and enables integration of dissimilar materials including semiconductors, metal oxides, polymers, and biofunctional structures. Several material and device integration examples will be discussed, including the directed assembly of bioprobe-coated and metal-oxide nanowire device arrays as well as monolayer 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystal materials.
Dr. Zhong Lin (ZL) Wang received his PhD from Arizona State University in 1987. He now is the Hightower Chair in Materials Science and Engineering and Regents' Professor at Georgia Tech. Dr. Wang has made original and innovative contributions to the synthesis, discovery, characterization and understanding of fundamental physical properties of oxide nanobelts and nanowires, as well as applications of nanowires in energy sciences, electronics, optoelectronics and biological science. His discovery and breakthroughs in developing nanogenerators establish the principle and technological road map for harvesting mechanical energy from environment and biological systems for powering a personal electronics. His research on self-powered nanosystems has inspired the worldwide effort in academia and industry for studying energy for micro-nano-systems, which is now a distinct disciplinary in energy research and future sensor networks. He coined and pioneered the field of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics by introducing piezoelectric potential gated charge transport process in fabricating new electronic and optoelectronic devices. This breakthrough by redesign CMOS transistor has important applications in smart MEMS/NEMS, nanorobotics, human-electronics interface and sensors. Dr. Wang's publications have been cited for over 72,000 times. The H-index of his citations is 131. Dr. Wang was elected as a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2009, member of European Academy of Sciences in 2002, fellow of American Physical Society in 2005, fellow of AAAS in 2006, fellow of Materials Research Society in 2008, fellow of Microscopy Society of America in 2010, and fellow of the World Innovation Foundation in 2002. He received 2014 NANOSMAT prize, 2014 Georgia Tech Distinguished Professor Award, 2014 the James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials from America Physical Society, 2013 ACS Nano Lectureship award, 2012 Edward Orton Memorial Lecture Award and 2009 Purdy Award from American Ceramic Society, 2011 MRS Medal from the Materials Research Society, 1999 Burton Medal from Microscopy Society of America. Details can be found at: http://www.nanoscience.gatech.edu
Developing wireless nanodevices and nanosystems is of critical importance for sensing, medical science, environmental/infrastructure monitoring, defense technology and even personal electronics. It is highly desirable for wireless devices to be self-powered without using battery. Nanogenerators (NGs) have been developed based on piezoelectric, trioboelectric and pyroelectric effects, aiming at building self-sufficient power sources for mico/nano-systems. The output of the nanogenerators now is high enough to drive a wireless sensor system and charge a battery for a cell phone, and they are becoming a vital technology for sustainable, independent and maintenance free operation of micro/nano-systems and mobile/portable electronics. An energy conversion efficiency of 50% and an output power density of 1200 W/m2 have been demonstrated. This technology is now not only capable of driving portable electronics, but also has the potential for harvesting wind and ocean wave energy for large-scale power application. This talk will focus on the fundamentals and novel applications of NGs.
For Wurtzite and zinc blend structures that have non-central symmetry, such as ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a strain. Such piezopotential can serve as a "gate" voltage that can effectively tune/control the charge transport across an interface/junction; electronics fabricated based on such a mechanism is coined as piezotronics, with applications in force/pressure triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors, logic units and memory. By using the piezotronic effect, we show that the optoelectronc devices fabricated using wurtzite materials can have superior performance as solar cell, photon detector and light emitting diode. Piezotronics is likely to serve as a "mechanosensation" for directly interfacing biomechanical action with silicon based technology and active flexible electronics. This lecture will focus on the fundamental science and novel applications of piezotronics in sensors, touch pad technology, functional devices and energy science.
Professor Jagadish is an Australian Laureate Fellow, Distinguished Professor and Head of Semiconductor Optoelectronics and Nanotechnology Group in the Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University. He is also serving as Vice-President and Secretary Physical Science of the Australian Academy of Science and Vice President (Finance and Administration) of IEEE Photonics Society. Prof. Jagadish is an Editor/Associate editor of 7 Journals, 3 book series and serves on editorial boards of 17 other journals.
His research interests include quantum dots, nanowires, quantum dot solar cells, nanowire solar cells, quantum dot lasers, quantum dot photodetectors, quantum dot photonic integrated circuits, photonic crystals, plasmonics, metamaterials, THz photonics.
He has published more than 800 research papers (530 journal papers), holds 5 US patents, co-authored a book, co-edited 5 books and edited 12 conference proceedings and 14 special issues of Journals. He won the 2000 IEEE Millennium Medal and received Distinguished Lecturer awards from IEEE NTC, IEEE LEOS and IEEE EDS. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science, Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, IEEE, APS, MRS, OSA, AVS, ECS, SPIE, AAAS, IoP (UK), IET (UK), IoN (UK), EMA and the AIP. He received Peter Baume Award from the ANU in 2006, the Quantum Device Award from ISCS in 2010, IEEE Photonics Society Distinguished Service Award in 2010, IEEE Nanotechnology Council Distinguished Service Award in 2011, Electronics and Photonics Division Award of the Electrochemical Society in 2012 and Boas Medal from the Australian Institute of Physics in 2013.
Semiconductors have played an important role in the development of information and communications technology, solar cells, solid state lighting. Nanowires are considered as building blocks for the next generation electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will introduce the importance of nanowires and their potential applications and discuss about how these nanowires can be synthesized and how the shape, size and composition of the nanowires influence their structural and optical properties. I will present results on axial and radial heterostructures and how one can engineer the optical properties to obtain high performance optoelectronic devices such as lasers, THz detectors, solar cells. Future prospects of the semiconductor nanowires will be discussed.